Forgery Details in Image Control

Feature Extraction and Image Processing

Determination We would like to dedicate this guide to our father and mother: To Fausto and Joaquin Aguado, also to Brenda as well as the late Ian Nixon.

Characteristic Extraction and Image Control

Second release

Mark S i9000. Nixon Alberto S. Claro

Amsterdam • Boston • Heidelberg • London • New York • Oxford Paris • San Diego • S . fransisco • Singapore • Sydney • Tokyo Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier

Academics Press is usually an imprint of Elsevier Linacre Home, Jordan Hillside, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK 84 Theobald's Road, Greater london WC1X 8RR, UK Initially edition 2002 Reprinted 2005, 2005 Second edition 2008 Copyright В© 2008 Elsevier Ltd. Most rights appropriated No a part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval program or transmitted in any kind or in any respect electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise with no prior written permission with the publisher Permissions may be wanted directly from Elsevier's Science & Technology Legal rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fernkopie (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: [email protected] com. Otherwise you can fill in your ask for online at the Elsevier web site by http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice Not any responsibility is usually assumed by publisher for virtually any injury and/or damage to persons or real estate as a couple of products legal responsibility, negligence or perhaps, or coming from any work with or operation of any methods, goods, instructions or ideas within the material herein. Because of rapid advances inside the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be built British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available in the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this publication is available from the Library of Congress ISBN: 978-0-12372-538-7 For facts on most Academic Press publications visit our website at literature. elsevier. com Printed and bound in Hungary 08 09 10 10 9 8 several 6 a few 4 a few 2 1

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Contents

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Preface 1 Launch 1 . one particular Overview 1 ) 2 Human being and laptop vision 1 ) 3 A persons vision program 1 . 3. 1 The eye 1 . several. 2 The neural system 1 . a few. 3 Control 1 . 5 Computer perspective systems 1 ) 4. 1 Cameras 1 . 4. two Computer interfaces 1 . 4. 3 Processing an image 1 ) 5 Mathematical systems 1 ) 5. one particular Mathematical equipment 1 . a few. 2 Howdy Mathcad, howdy images! 1 ) 5. a few Hello Matlab! 1 . 6th Associated literary works 1 . 6th. 1 Periodicals and mags 1 . six. 2 Textbooks 1 . 6. 3 The web 1 . 7 Conclusions 1 ) 8 Recommendations 2 Pictures, sampling and frequency domain name processing 2 . 1 2 . 2 2 . 3 installment payments on your 4 2 . 5 Overview Image formation The Fourier transform The sampling qualifying criterion The discrete Fourier convert 2 . a few. 1 One-dimensional transform 2 . 5. two Two-dimensional convert 2 . 6 Other properties of the Fourier transform 2 . 6. 1 Shift invariance 2 . 6. 2 Rotation 2 . six. 3 Consistency scaling 2 . 6. 5 Superposition (linearity)

xi you 1 one particular 3 5 6 six 9 12 12 14 15 of sixteen 16 twenty-one 24 24 25 twenty-eight 29 twenty nine 33 thirty-three 34 37 43 47 47 49 54 fifty four 56 56 57 sixth is v

2 . six Transforms besides Fourier installment payments on your 7. one particular Discrete cosine transform installment payments on your 7. 2 Discrete Hartley transform installment payments on your 7. 3 Introductory wavelets: the Gabor wavelet 2 . 7. 5 Other changes 2 . 8 Applications applying frequency domain name properties 2 . 9 Further reading 2 . 10 Recommendations 3 Standard image finalizing operations 3. 1 Review 3. 2 Histograms several. 3 Level operators 3. 3. one particular Basic point operations several. 3. a couple of Histogram normalization 3. several. 3 Histogram equalization 3. 3. some Thresholding three or more. 4 Group operations 3. 4. 1 Template convolution 3. 5. 2 Averaging operator 3. 4. 3 On distinct template size 3. four. 4 Gaussian averaging user 3. 5 Other record operators a few. 5. one particular More about averaging 3. 5. two Median filtration system 3. five. 3 Method filter 3. 5. some Anisotropic konzentrationsausgleich 3. your five. 5 Power field transform 3. 5. 6 A comparison of statistical providers 3. 6th...

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